Earth Day, Every Day

Hopefully, you had some time to get out into nature this past Earth Day and have some fun. But, why let the festivities end there? We need our Earth to be healthy every day. Therefore, we challenge you to find an activity that will have lasting meaning for you and perhaps a child in your life and make a pledge.

Whether you believe that children inherit the Earth or that we are merely borrowing the Earth from our children, the fact remains that younger generations will have to live with the results of our choices today. Now is the time to take action to live more gently on the Earth, as well as to foster a child’s natural affinity for nature. Below are some ideas to get started.

Find your—or your child’s—“love” below and learn what you can do. Easy activities may take a few minutes. More challenging tasks can be done in an afternoon. Commitments are on-going.

Do you love playing or relaxing in your yard? 

Pledge: Avoid chemical pesticides in your lawn and garden


Easy: Embrace the dandelions! Make dandelion flower chains with young children. For older children and adults: Make your own pest control spray with this recipe.

Challenge: Plant native plants and trees. They don’t need high inputs of water, fertilizer, or pest control. They attract birds and beneficial insects to eat any pests. Children may need a smaller size shovel to help dig or they can help choose which plant species to add to the landscape and where.

Commit: Use manual and non-toxic techniques to remove weeds. Learn more. Small hands are great for pulling young weeds (but leave thistle and picky plants for gloved grown up hands or shovels)!

Do you love going to your local parks?

Pledge: Keep your favorite park beautiful and toxic-free


Easy: Bring a bag, wear gloves, and pick up litter! Consider donating any money from bottle deposit returns.

Challenge: Inquire about the pesticide policies at your favorite park and request pesticide-free.

Commit: Volunteer to help maintain a pesticide-free playground, park, or school by pulling weeds, spreading mulch, etc.

Do you love the bees and butterflies? 

Pledge: Provide food sources and habitat for pollinators


Easy: Spread clover seeds in your lawn to attract and support bees. Let the dandelions flower. Both dandelions and clover are important food sources for bees.

Challenge: Plant milkweed seeds in your garden for monarchs. Plant other native plants to attract pollinators. Build native bee houses. Make a bee watering dish by putting rocks and pebbles in a wide, shallow bowl and partially covering the rocks with fresh water.

Commit: Don’t buy neonicotinoid pesticides (which have a warning label and a small picture of a bee) or plants that have had neonics applied. Ask your favorite bedding plants store to avoid neonic products on shelves and on bee-friendly plants. Learn more.       

Do you love our Earth's climate? 

Pledge: Use less energy


Easy: Post small reminders to encourage family members to turn lights out when leaving a room and to unplug unused devices and appliances. Try: “Be nice, unplug twice: once at the outlet, once at the device.”

Challenge: Gear up your family’s bikes so you can leave the car in the garage for short trips to the park or school or errands that are close to home. Kids can pump air into bike tires, help clean bike chains, etc.

Commit: Set up a clothes line or rack to take advantage of free solar energy to dry clothes (even if just some of your loads) and give the second biggest consumer of electricity in your household a time out. No need to spend money and energy heating up clothes in a machine when it’s plenty hot outside! Speaking of hot, remember to forego the A/C whenever possible or turn it to a lower setting.

These are just a few ideas, but we can think about the Earth in all of our favorite activities. If you love to swim or spend time on the water, find ways to help protect rivers, the Great Lakes, and our oceans (such as avoiding microbeads in facial scrubs and sparkles in toothpaste or helping at a beach or river cleanup day). Gather ideas from children as well. They may offer up some wonderful surprises!

Our children are passionate about the Earth. Let’s find ways to have fun and also show them that they can make a difference! It’s their future in our hands.


Published on April 27, 2017

Cracking the Code: Bronson Healthcare’s Journey to Local Eggs

Guest Author, Amy Getman - Ecology Center 2016 Health Leaders Fellow, Pediatric Dietitian at Bronson Methodist Hospital

Chickens graze at Naturally Norm's farm in Lawton, MI, one of the farms from which Bronson Healthcare sources shell eggs.
Photo Credit: Amy Getman

Since 2008, Grant Fletcher has been changing the way the health system sources food for patients and employees at Bronson Healthcare.  Fletcher, the System Director of Healthy Living and Sustainability at Bronson, and his team started by scaling up purchases of local fruits and vegetables and on-site seasonal farmers markets and CSA memberships for employees. As those programs have taken root, Fletcher recently decided to take on a new challenge: sourcing all eggs from local producers.

"Eggs represented an opportunity to make a significant transition," says Fletcher. Bronson Methodist Hospital, like many hospitals and large institutions, was purchasing egg products such as liquid eggs, pre-shelled hard boiled eggs, pre-made egg patties, and the once popular low-cholesterol egg products.  Many factors contributed to Bronson’s decision to move away from processed egg products and toward locally produced whole eggs. In addition to research pointing to consumption of whole eggs as a healthier alternative to low-cholesterol egg products, the timing of the switch to local eggs was partially motivated by an avian flu outbreak that caused the price of liquid eggs to skyrocket.

When considering where to source local eggs, Fletcher did not have to look far. A pair of local farmers, Norm Carlson, of Naturally Norm’s and Joe Koopsen of Joe’s Farm, were already selling eggs in the Kalamazoo community and were interested in establishing a partnership with Bronson. The next challenge was to produce a consistent product using whole eggs. As a result, Bronson now produces its liquid eggs using a bulk egg extractor — a small machine that makes a big impact. Whole eggs are placed into the machine, and a large centrifuge separates the shell from the liquid eggs.

Fresh cases of local eggs arrive at Bronson.
Photo Credit: Brendan Maloney 

Fletcher credits education and communication as cornerstones to the success his organization has had in moving to local eggs. Throughout the hospital, patient trays with an egg dish included a message with a picture of Norm holding one of his happy chickens and explaining the switch. Internal communication to employees and signage throughout the cafeteria also helped spread the message.

Ultimately, streamlining to only buying whole eggs proved to be a smart choice. In addition to supporting community businesses, by using the locally sourced whole eggs Bronson has saved thousands of dollars without increasing prices for consumers, and in the end, provides a healthier alternative. "Any organization can do this if the administration, the executives, [and] the thought leaders are at the table and are committed to making it happen,” says Fletcher. As each new local product change takes root, Bronson gets closer to its goal of 50-60% locally sourced food. Fletcher says the next step is sourcing local protein such as whole chickens and whole turkeys.

This article originally appeared on our partner website, Cultivate Michigan

Cultivate Michigan Egg Guide 

Just released: Cultivate Michigan's Spring guide featuring local eggs. Learn more about sourcing, serving and celebrating Michigan eggs.

Published on April 27, 2017

New Midwest Partnership Applauds Chicago’s Inclusion in Volkswagen Investment Plan

Charge Up Midwest calls for more Midwest cities to benefit from zero emission vehicle investments

Ann Arbor, MI, April 13, 2017 —Charge Up Midwest, a new partnership aimed at catalyzing Midwest leadership on electric vehicles, applauds the Volkswagen’s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Investment Plan inclusion of Chicago as one of the cities selected for investment. The EPA approved plan posted by the EPA today proposes EV infrastructure investments in 11 major metro areas, including one in the Midwest, Chicago.  VW’s plan also includes investments in charging infrastructure along several key highway corridors throughout the Midwest such as I-75, I-94, and I-80.

“The planned VW investment in Chicago is terrific news for a city that has taken many steps towards clean transportation,” says Robert Kelter, senior attorney at the Environmental Law & Policy Center, and a Charge Up Midwest partner. “The VW funds will accelerate the shift away from traditional gasoline vehicles to a new generation of electric vehicles that will mean lower costs, cleaner air and less dependence on foreign oil – a real step towards keeping Chicago at the forefront of great American cities.”

Chicago’s high density population and large number of metro area employers make it an ideal location for investment. Chicago also sits along major highway corridors that connect the Midwest, which is home to more than one-fifth of the nation’s people.

While the Charge Up Midwest campaign applauds VW’s proposed investments in Chicago and along key highway corridors, its members are disappointed that VW did not propose additional Midwestern cities in its plan.  The coalition believes that more investment in the region is critical to capitalizing on the significant EV growth opportunities presented in America's heartland.

"Here in America's heartland, Metro areas like Columbus, Detroit, and Minneapolis-St. Paul were also prime candidates for VW’s infrastructure investments,” stated Charles Griffith, Director of the Climate and Energy Program at the Ecology Center in Ann Arbor, Michigan.  "With their strong leadership on EVs and with more than a fifth of the nation’s population here in the Midwest, we are disappointed that more cities in our region did not receive stronger consideration."

The investments are being made as a result of the national settlement agreement reached last year with EPA and the California Air Resources Board to address the VW emissions-cheating scandal. Volkswagen’s newly released ZEV investment plan is threefold: investments in electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure on major highway corridors, investments in infrastructure in key metro areas, and funding to increase awareness and foster education surrounding EVs. VW has developed a separate plan for California, which includes launching a Green City Initiative that will pilot future concepts of sustainable mobility.

In late 2016, Charge Up Midwest submitted a letter to Volkswagen in response to their initial Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Investment Plan. The letter highlighted the opportunities to strategically deploy charging infrastructure in a region that is primed for greater electric vehicle adoption and cited specific examples of EV programs in several Midwest metro areas. The campaign proposed working collaboratively with utility companies to expand and deploy charging infrastructure, and cautioned against displacing existing and proposed infrastructure plans.

“Engaging the pertinent stakeholders with an interest in the future of electric vehicles— policymakers, automakers, utility companies, and environmental and consumer advocacy groups—is vital to figuring out the best ways to increase the number of electric vehicles produced in our region as well as on our roads. Making our region a leader in electric vehicles not only helps to ensure that the Midwest remains a leader in automotive technology, but that we lead in reducing carbon emissions and air pollution as well.” – said Joe Halso, an attorney at the Sierra Club.

Charge Up Midwest is a campaign led by environmental and clean energy organizations committed to helping the Midwest minimize carbon emissions from the transportation sector. Campaign partners seek to engage with a broad range of stakeholders to support actions that increase investment in electric vehicle infrastructure, create a more resilient and low-carbon grid, expand the education of the public and policymakers about the benefits of electric vehicles, and otherwise accelerate the electric vehicle market in the region.

Campaign partners are already working with electric utility companies to expand and strengthen electric vehicle charging infrastructure throughout the region, and conducting research into the economic and environmental benefits of electric vehicles. Charge Up Midwest’s campaign partners are made up of organizations that work in Illinois, Missouri, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio:

Ecology Center

Fresh Energy

Clean Fuels Ohio

Environmental Law and Policy Center

Natural Resources Defense Council

Sierra Club


Published on April 13, 2017

Join us at the Ann Arbor March for Science, a sister march of the national march. 

Marchers Pledge

(as stated on

March starts at U of M Diag, Ann Arbor, MI

Welcome, 2017 Cohort of Health Leaders Fellows

Friday, March 24th, Ecology Center welcomed the 2017 cohort of Health Leaders Fellowship at the Matthaei Botanical Gardens.

Health Leaders Program Overview: 

Health Leaders learn from experts in the field about the connections between human health and the environment and what can be done to improve health outcomes. Fellows will develop the critical civic engagement skills needed to advocate for change within health care institutions and in the public policy arena. Through a unique guided practicum fellows will gain experience applying new knowledge and skills to help drive social change.

The curriculum focuses on learning and engagement in the following three areas:

Food - All aspects of the food production system, from farm to plate, are explicitly connected to health. Fellows will learn how they can support a healthier food system, not reliant on the misuse of antibiotics and pesticides.

Toxics - Hazardous chemicals present in the environment, our homes, and everyday products are linked to certain cancers, autism and learning disabilities, and infertility. Fellows will learn how to foster safer chemical use in their institutions and how to advocate for policies to reduce our exposure to toxic chemicals.

Climate & energy – The use of fossil fuels and resulting climate change is one of the most pressing public health issues we face today. Fellows will examine the health and environmental impacts of energy choices and how health providers can be a part of the solution.

More information about the program. 

Published on March 30, 2017

Everything We Feared

Trump’s climate plans ignore science, health risk, economics– so what’s new? Widespread opposition can defeat Administration’s efforts

Ever since November 8, we’ve been expecting Donald Trump to initiate a “repeal and replace” of President Obama’s climate policies, and it all just came to a head.  On March 28, in true Orwellian fashion, President Trump went to EPA headquarters to announce an Executive Order designed to dismantle the EPA’s signature climate policy for the nation’s power plants.  The action, under the guise of promoting energy independence, specifically orders the EPA to “suspend, or rescind” the Clean Power Plan rule and to replace it with something more favorable to their coal company friends and other energy interests more dependent on carbon-intensive energy generation.

That capped off a busy couple of weeks for the Trump administration in its war against the climate, including a rollback of federal fuel economy standards (announced at Michigan’s Center for Auto Mobility), and a permit for the Keystone XL pipeline.

Never mind that America is already 90% energy independent already. Never mind that many in the power industry are already well on their way to meeting the Clean Power Plan’s 30% carbon reduction requirements. Never mind that coal has been on its way out due to market forces favoring cheap natural gas and even cheaper renewables and energy efficiency practices.  And never mind that most of the world now supports aggressive action to address the growing environmental and public health threats of a changing climate. Trump and his fossil-friendly administration are making clear that their intent is to wipe clean any federal action or policy addressing climate change. 

This kind of climate denial is not only wrong-headed, but it puts Americans at risk and threatens the health of our families and communities.  More than 3,600 deaths and 90,000 asthma attacks could be avoided each year under the Clean Power Plan’s common sense standards, creating thousands of new jobs in clean energy businesses and saving millions for all electricity consumers through greater efficiency measures.  If the Trump Administration really cared about coal workers, it’d help them find jobs in emerging economic sectors, not make promises about reviving an industry that is already on its way out. 

But just like President Trump’s travel ban and health care reform, we can stop his War on Climate. We will stop it!

The March 28 Executive Order is just the beginning of a long fight.  Keep in mind that the Supreme Court has already determined – unanimously – that EPA has an obligation to regulate carbon emissions in order to protect public health.  So EPA will have to make its case that the standards should be weakened while still meeting its obligations under the Clean Air Act, and any new proposals will again be subject to public review as well as review by the courts.  More than 4 million Americans have already voiced their support of the current standards, and the courts have so far upheld the rule. 

Keeping up the public’s opposition to any weakening of the rules is thus critical.  Just as many of you did in supporting the Clean Power Plan when the EPA made its proposal, we will need supporters like you to speak out again over the coming months and years as EPA comes up with its “repeal and replace” plans.  With your support, we can again defeat any ill-conceived plans that they may try to bring forward. 




Published on March 30, 2017

There is No Safe Level of Lead Exposure for a Child

Advocates and health professionals bring important message to Lansing on Lead Education Day.

Ecology Center at Lead Education Day, pictured left to right: Melissa Sargent Cooper– Green Living Resources Director, Mara Herman– Health Outreach Coordinator, Rebecca Meuninck– Deputy Director, Lauren Olson– Science Campaign Director

“There is no safe level of exposure to lead for a child.” This is the mantra that Ecology Center staff, parents, and others carried to Lansing on March 8th.  About 60 environmental advocates, public health professionals, lead-abatement contractors and other citizen-advocates braved gale-force winds for the Michigan Aliiance for Lead Safe Homes 6th annual Lead Education Day. Our coalition partner, Michigan Alliance for Lead Safe Homes (MiALSH) worked to connect constituents to over forty legislators to discuss the real hazards of lead lurking in and around Michigan homes.  

Each time a window or door is opened or closed, friction occurs which can create dust.  For houses built before 1978—the year lead was banned for use in paint—the resulting dust can be contaminated with lead. The potential for exposure increases anytime an old home is remodeled. Michigan’s housing stock is older than the country average. 70% of the homes in the state (versus about 50% nationally) were built before 1978 and likely have windows, doors, cupboards, and porches coated with lead paint.

What legislators can do:

There’s much we can do on the state level to prevent lead poisoning. On March 8th, lawmakers learned about vital strategies, including:

1. Universal lead testing of all children one and two years of age. In 2015 about 5,000 Michigan kids had elevated blood lead levels (above 5 mg/dL). But the true total is likely much higher because only about 20 percent of the state’s children under six are currently tested for lead exposure.

2. Continued funding to support the state’s lead cleanup program. This money is leveraged to bring in federal funds to remove potential lead hazards in homes. After a child is discovered to have an elevated blood lead level (BLL) the source of exposure must be identified. Most often the cause is lead paint in the home. The second most common exposure source is soil around the home. Both of these hazards can be mitigated through state programs that replace old windows and doors and remove contaminated soil.

3. Stop using kids as lead detectors by requiring that homes in Michigan undergo a one-time lead inspection risk assessment to identify lead hazards before a home is sold or leased to a new resident.

Following on the heels of the Lead Education Day, Governor Snyder passed an executive order to create a permanent Child Lead Exposure Elimination Commission. On March 16th, Governor Snyder announced the names of the 15 members of the commission. Rebecca Meuninck, Ecology Center Deputy Director, has been appointed for a two-year term to serve on the commission. The commission will work with the administration and legislature to implement policy recommendations to end childhood lead poisoning.

Money Sense

Lead Education Day advocates were pleased to point out that investing in lead poisoning prevention is not only good for our health; it’s also good for our collective wallet. The annual cost of lead exposure in Michigan children is approximately $270 million ($112 million of which is paid by taxpayers), according to the Ecology Center’s 2016 report, The Cost of Lead Exposure and Remediation in Michigan. For the report, researchers added up conservative estimates of four societal costs directly impacted by lead poisoning: increased health care, increased adult and juvenile crime, increased special education, and decline in lifetime earnings.

Remediating the most at risk homes, however, would cost the state approximately $600 million, giving a profitable return on investment in less than three years. This is timely information for the legislators, as they will be working on the state budget over the next few months.

What can you do at home

  • Don’t allow children (and pets) to play in bare soil;
  • Remove shoes before entering the house;
  • Wet-mop floors weekly;
  • Remove dust with a wet cloth (instead of dry-dusting);
  • Frequently wash children’s faces, hands, and teething toys;
  • Always use cold tap water for cooking;
  • Eat a diet rich in Calcium, Iron, and Vitamin C;
  • Get children under 6 tested for lead;
  • Contact the Ecology Center to see how you can get involved! 

Ecology Center Contacts: Rebecca Meuninck or Melissa Cooper Sargent


Published on March 30, 2017

Monthly Recycling Craft

A FREE public event

W.R. Wheeler Service Center, 4251 Stone School Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48108

The Ecology Center and the Three Unstoppable Forces to Halt the Trump Rollbacks

Join #TheResistance now.

On February 24, President Trump issued an executive order on “Enforcing the Regulatory Reform Agenda,” imposing a new layer of oversight on federal regulations.  The measure is part of the Administration’s project to undermine and dismantle much of the federal regulatory structure, especially the country’s environmental protections.  To make the anti-environment point perfectly clear, after signing the order, the President handed his signing pen to Andrew Liveris, Chairman, and CEO of the Dow Chemical Company.

This is just the latest attack.

Since the November election, and the President’s inauguration in January, Congress and the new Administration have called for an unprecedented assault on environmental and public health protections, including a withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement, the rollback of major environmental regulations, the dismantling of the EPA, and more. 

Throughout the country, though, resisting is arising -- #TheResistance, with a # and a capital R. We are rising with it, and we urge you to rise along with us.  It’s going to be a struggle, but people and the planet are going to prevail.

While the federal government has great power to worsen our communities’ health and well-being, countervailing forces may have equal or greater power to resist.  Especially now, the Ecology Center plays a vitally important role in three unstoppable forces that’ll halt Trump rollbacks.


First, market demand and technological change are moving the private sector toward sustainability – no matter what!  For example, no matter what laws President Trump and Mitch McConnell might seek to promote the resurgence of coal industry jobs, utilities won’t want to buy the product. It’s just not price-competitive with natural gas, or even with wind power in most parts of the country.  In other industries, too, there are powerful market pressures that are driving companies to produce safer products, cleaner energy, and healthy food.

The Ecology Center is a national leader in market campaigns that lead manufacturers to make safer and less-toxic products.  Our Healthy Stuff product testing service provides consumers with information about how to keep their families safe, and we work in partnership with national advocacy campaigns to push major corporations to clean up their product line.  In 2016, we helped win commitments from Campbell’s, Del Monte, and Target, to name a few.  In addition, we are a regional leader of efforts to advance electric vehicles in the Upper Midwest, and a statewide leader to build major institutional demand for local and sustainably grown food.

Donald Trump, Scott Pruitt, and Mitch McConnell can’t stop the market.


Second, states and local governments are resisting threatened federal environmental rollbacks and adopting their own climate plans and progressive environmental programs.  On the climate issue, for instance, this is a global phenomenon, where 167 “sub-national governments” in 33 countries, representing over 1 billion people and $25 trillion in collective GDP, have committed themselves to net-zero climate emissions by 2050.

The Ecology Center is southeast Michigan’s foremost organization devoted to community action for environmental health.  In Ann Arbor, we’ve organized a large coalition of supporters in support of one of the Midwest’s most ambitious clean energy agendas.  In Detroit, we’ve helped create an innovative food prescription program that’s designed to grow into a citywide service.  In Dearborn, we’re promoting environmental literacy among students and teachers in the community’s schools.  Our work in southeast Michigan is networked with the work of other community-focused advocates all across the United States.

They can try, but Donald Trump and Scott Pruitt can’t stop cities, counties, and states.


Finally, national NGO’s, federal whistleblowers, state attorneys general, and activists will be fighting the mechanics of legislative and regulatory rollbacks, and they’ll have hundreds of barriers to throw up against the Administration as it tries to implement its campaign promises against the environment.  The Ecology Center works in national coalitions on toxic chemicals and climate issues, and we’ll keep you engaged in these efforts as they affect southeast Michigan.

The President and Congress cannot simply snap their fingers and undo nearly 50 years of protections for people’s health and the environment. 

Polluters and climate deniers have taken over the Administration but remember: the Presidency is not the only branch of our federal government.  The federal government is not America’s only government.  And the government is not everything in America.

Consumers, local governments, and citizen action are the last lines of defense against the federal dismantling of the country’s environmental protections.  Join #TheResistance now.

Published on February 27, 2017

Illuminating Opportunities in Our K-12 Schools

“Light is the most important environmental input, after food and water, in controlling bodily functions” (Wurtman, 1975)

In the middle of a Michigan winter, many of us Michiganders find ourselves yearning for more natural light. The days are short, the sun is scarce, and our interior artificial lighting solutions can often be too glaring or to too dim.

It’s not surprising we may feel affected by the grey winter; light is essential for human functioning. In fact, research suggests that lighting affects people’s health, mood, well-being, and alertness. Furthermore, in addition to the physiological and psychological effects of different types of illumination, research has indicated that specific lighting conditions may also increase human performance.

The Ecology Center and its Michigan Renewable Schools program is evaluating evidence-based connections between improved student performance and health with strategic clean energy investments in our K-12 school facilities: better lighting, ventilation, exterior building shell, etc.

This research linking building efficiency and student performance benefits is extremely encouraging. For example, new LED technology is providing a level of control and adaptability not previously possible. Not only can LEDs significantly reduce energy and operating costs for schools, but implementing “tunable” and “dynamic” solid-state lighting and controls can increase the savings impact as well as enhance student learning environments. Color tuning allows for adjusting the color temperature of the artificial light, which can range from a very warm light (standard incandescent light) to a very bright light rich in blue content (like a mid-day sky). Dynamic lighting provides different lighting solutions for different tasks.

In a study conducted by the University of Mississippi and Philips (lighting manufacturer), students exposed to lighting with higher light intensity and light temperature levels had, by the end of the year, increases in performance that were 33% higher than the increases in performance of the control group. The study raises important questions about the potential for optimizing learning environments with better lighting – particularly for our younger students. Other studies seem to point to younger students being an important target audience for these building lighting enhancements.

Over the last year, the Ecology Center has worked with over 20 school/districts to conduct a baseline energy analysis and discuss a strategy to implement energy efficiency and renewable energy projects within their districts. At least seven districts have expressed interest in LED conversion projects and three districts are discussing demonstration scale solar installations. We hope to see these projects implemented with a number of districts later this year.

Every day, 600,000 at-risk kids attend Michigan schools with inadequate facilities, and clean energy investments are the most cost-effective way of improving their learning environments.  Clean energy investments can save schools 20% or more on annual utility costs – nearly $60 per pupil and $100M statewide – and provide evidence-based achievement gains through improved classroom environments with no upfront costs to schools.

The Michigan Renewable Schools Program provides technical energy assistance and financing guidance to K-12 school representatives. Our experience and resources support K-12 facility efforts to save money, reduce operating expenses, and improve classroom environments.

Published on February 27, 2017