In this investigation, the following PFASs were detected:
Total fluorine levels were also tested.
PFASs are known to be persistent organic pollutants.
PFOA and PFOS are listed as developmental toxicants under California Prop 65. Both are suspected carcinogens, toxic to reproduction, and may cause developmental disorders. PFHxA, PFBA, and PFBS are potential endo- crine disruptors. PFHxA and PFHpA are sus- pected of harming developing fetuses.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified PFOA as a carcinogen.
Many PFAS are either on the SIN or SINimilary lists.
The US TSCA has a SNUR proposed for PFOA and PFOS.
PFOA and PFOS are listed on CA Proposition 65. PFHxA is on the California DTSC list.
PFHpA and PFBA are on Minnesota’s Toxic Free Kids Act “chemicals of high concern” list PFHpA, PFO, and PFOA are EPA Chemicals of Concern with an Action Plan published. 6:2FTS is on the California DTSC list.
Total fluorine, as a class of organofluorine chemicals, is not currently regulated.
We also tested for the presence of metals and non-metal elements—including antimony, bro- mine, lead, iron, phosphorus, and chlorine. These tests analyzed samples for chemical elements, not organic compounds. Some elements, like lead, have well-studied toxicity in their elemental form. Other elements, including bromine, chlorine, and phosphorus, can be used as indicators of flame-retardant chemistry, which uses one or more of these elements. Further research using other analytical methods is required to identify exact chemical structures and related health im- pacts from these findings. Therefore, these results are listed but not further interpreted—with the exception of iron, lead, and sulfur results in two carpets due to their potential link to fly ash (commonly used in US carpets). In some instances, the presence of certain metals and/or chlo- rine verifies findings from the VU’s testing; for example, low levels of chlorine could indicate the use of chlorinated flame retardants, and bromine levels of 5–500ppm may indicate the presence of brominated flame retardants as contaminants. In these cases, further investigation of these samples is recommended.