Testing of beverage bottle cap liners reveals widespread use of toxic phthalates and PVC

In collaboration with our partners at Defend Our Health, the Healthy Stuff Lab has discovered that the gaskets lining caps or lids of glass-bottled beverages are frequently made of vinyl containing high levels of phthalates. "Vinyl" is short for polyvinyl chloride or PVC and "phthalates" is short for ortho-phthalate esters, a class of hazardous plasticizers added to vinyl plastic. Phthalates are not bound to the plastic, and we know from prior research that the chemicals migrate into food or liquid. 

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The good news is that several beverage companies have already taken quick action after we communicated our findings to them, and we continue to engage with companies. 

Phthalates have been phased out of many food-contact materials due to concerns about their links with health impacts including abnormal genital development and asthma. To determine their frequency in bottled beverages (non-alcoholic), we collected 273 caps from glass-bottled beverages and 10 caps from plastic-bottled beverages around the United States and Canada and tested the gaskets. 

Individual sample listings are below.** Results for gaskets from the 273 glass-bottled beverages are also aggregated as an Excel spreadsheet downloadable here.

**Due to our engagement, some companies have switched to different materials for their cap gaskets since their products were tested. Test results provide a snapshot of cap gaskets purchased in late 2019 and throughout 2020. 

Published on July 13, 2021

Sample Listing

Fentiman's Ginger Beer
Polystyrene copolymer
Fentiman's Traditional Rose Lemonade
Polystyrene copolymer
Fever Tree Elderberry Tonic Water
Polystyrene copolymer
Fever Tree Ginger Ale
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Fever Tree Premium Club Soda
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Fever Tree Premium Ginger Beer
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Fever Tree Premium Ginger Beer
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Fever Tree Premium Indian Tonic Water
Polystyrene copolymer
Fever Tree Premium Indian Tonic Water
Polystyrene copolymer
Fresca Toranja Grapefruit Soda
Polystyrene copolymer
Fujiya Peach Nectar
Polyethylene
Gerolsteiner Sparkling Natural Mineral Water
Polystyrene copolymer
Giant Black Cherry Cream Soda
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Giant Ginger Beer
DOTP plasticizer, PVC
Goldthread Plant Based Tonics: Green Minerals
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
Goya Fruit Punch Soda
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Goya Ginger Beer
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Goya Malta Goya Malt Beverage
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Grace Tropical Rhythms Pineapple Ginger
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
GT's Kombucha Gingerade
Polystyrene copolymer
GT's Kombucha Original
PEVA
GT's Synergy Raw Kombucha Trilogy
PEVA
GT’s Synergy Raw Kombucha Gingerade Organic
PEVA
GT’s Synergy Raw Kombucha Gingerade Organic
PEVA
Guayaki Organic Yerba Mate Passion Terere
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Guayaki Organic Yerba Mate Raspberry Terere
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Guayaki Organic Yerba Mate Unsweetened Traditional Terere
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Guayaki Organic Yerba Mate Unsweetened Traditional Terere
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Hank's Gourmet Vanilla Cream Soda
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Harney & Sons Organic Black, Energizing Black Tea
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Health-Ade Kombucha Cayenne Cleanse
PDMS, Polyethylene
Health-Ade Kombucha Grape Vibes
Polyethylene
Health-Ade Kombucha Grape Vibes
PDMS, Polyethylene
Health-Ade Kombucha Passion Fruit Tangerine
Polyethylene
Henry Weinhard's Black Cherry Cream Soda
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Honest Organic Just Black Tea
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
Honest Organic Just Green Tea
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
Honest Organic Just Green Tea
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
Honest Organic Lori's Lemon Tea
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
Hubert's Lemonade Original Lemonade 1.25 qt
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
Hubert's Lemonade Original Lemonade 1.25 qt
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
Hubert's Lemonade Strawberry Lemonade
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
Hubert’s Lemonade Blueberry Lemonade
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
Humm Kombucha Pomegranate Lemonade 14 fl oz
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Humm Strawberry Lemonade Kombucha 14 fl oz
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
IBC Diet Root Beer
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
IBC Root Beer
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
IBC Root Beer
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Icelandic Natural Spring Water
Polystyrene copolymer
Inca's Food Nectar De Marcuya
ESBO plasticizer, PVC

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