Testing of beverage bottle cap liners reveals widespread use of toxic phthalates and PVC

In collaboration with our partners at Defend Our Health, the Healthy Stuff Lab has discovered that the gaskets lining caps or lids of glass-bottled beverages are frequently made of vinyl containing high levels of phthalates. "Vinyl" is short for polyvinyl chloride or PVC and "phthalates" is short for ortho-phthalate esters, a class of hazardous plasticizers added to vinyl plastic. Phthalates are not bound to the plastic, and we know from prior research that the chemicals migrate into food or liquid. 

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The good news is that several beverage companies have already taken quick action after we communicated our findings to them, and we continue to engage with companies. 

Phthalates have been phased out of many food-contact materials due to concerns about their links with health impacts including abnormal genital development and asthma. To determine their frequency in bottled beverages (non-alcoholic), we collected 273 caps from glass-bottled beverages and 10 caps from plastic-bottled beverages around the United States and Canada and tested the gaskets. 

Individual sample listings are below.** Results for gaskets from the 273 glass-bottled beverages are also aggregated as an Excel spreadsheet downloadable here.

**Due to our engagement, some companies have switched to different materials for their cap gaskets since their products were tested. Test results provide a snapshot of cap gaskets purchased in late 2019 and throughout 2020. 

Published on July 13, 2021

Sample Listing

Mira Azul Coconut Juice
Polystyrene copolymer
Mira Mango Nectar
Adipate plasticizer, PVC
Mother Raspberry Rose Apple Cider Vinegar Beverage
ATBC plasticizer, PVC
Mountain Valley Spring Water
Polystyrene copolymer
Nantucket Nectars Pineapple Orange Banana
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
Nantucket Nectars Pomegranate Cherry
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
Nature's Promise Organic Cold Pressed Juice - Berry the Lead
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
Nature's Promise Organic Cold Pressed Juice - Tropical Conversation
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
Nifty Brewing Co Chocolate Caramel Nitro Cold Press Coffee
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
O Organics Pink Grapefruit Flavored Organic Italian Soda
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
O-SO Grape Soda
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
O-SO Strawberry Soda
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Omiberry Berry Tea
Polyethylene
Open Nature 100% Juice Cranberry Juice
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Open Nature 100% Juice Cranberry Juice
DOTP plasticizer, Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Parrot Coconut Milk Drink
Polystyrene copolymer
Peloton Cascara Tea Peach + Ginger
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Peloton Cascara Tea, Original Lightly Sweetened
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Pepsi-Cola Made with Real Sugar
DOTP plasticizer, PVC
Perrier Sparkling Water
Polystyrene copolymer
Perrier Sparkling Water
PEVA, Polystyrene copolymer
Perrier Sparkling Water
PEVA, Polystyrene copolymer
Pink Ting Carbonated Beverage from Grapefruit Concentrate
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
POM Wonderful Pomegranate Juice (plastic bottle)
Polystyrene copolymer
Pran Coconut Water with Pulp
Polystyrene copolymer
Pura Fruta Mango Nectar 16 fl oz
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Pura Fruta Ponche de Frutas Tropical Fruit Punch 16 fl oz
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Pure Leaf Cold Brew Tea Slightly Sweet Black Tea with Tropical Mango
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
Pure Leaf Organic Black Tea with Sicilian Lemon & Honeysuckle
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
Pure Leaf Tea House Collection Organic Fuji Apple & Ginger
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
Q Ginger Beer
Polystyrene copolymer
Q Ginger Beer
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
R.W. Knudson Organic Cranberry Pomegranate 32 fl oz
ESBO plasticizer, PVC
Ramune Original Flavor Carbonated Soft Drink
Polyethylene, Polystyrene copolymer
Reed's Craft Ginger Beer Extra
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Reed's Craft Ginger Beer Extra
DOTP plasticizer, PVC
Reed's Craft Ginger Beer Extra
Adipate plasticizer, PVC
Reed's Original Ginger Brew
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Reed's Original Ginger Brew
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Reed's Original Ginger Brew
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Reed’s Craft Ginger Beer Original
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Rise Kombucha Fresh Ginger
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
Salvavidas Tangerine Flavored Soft Drink
Phthalate plasticizer, PVC
San Pellegrino Sparkling Natural Mineral Water
PEVA
San Pellegrino Sparkling Natural Mineral Water
PEVA
San Pellegrino Sparkling Natural Mineral Water
PEVA
San Pellegrino Sparkling Natural Mineral Water 12 oz.
PEVA
Sangria Señorial Sparkling Non-Alcoholic Sangria
Polystyrene copolymer
Sangría Señorial Sparkling Non-Alcoholic Sangria
Polystyrene copolymer
SanPellegrino Aranciata Orange
Polystyrene copolymer

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